金沙国际Girls do better at school 女子在校学习成绩更好

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高大壮大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正日益拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

一所高等匈牙利(Magyarország)语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那一点一滴取决于他们的大脑、肉体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy委员长伊凡Yip称“他们普遍认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前者收费3.8万日币一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另三个为其超过半数学生提供午餐补贴,1/4的学生有至极教学须要。但是,它们都无差别致力于解决相同难题:青少年男孩远远落后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是五个十几年前不能够想像的题材。直到19世纪70时期以前,男孩比女孩开支更长日子并得到更高等教学育,且更有恐怕从高校结束学业。今后,无论是富裕世界还是特别多的贫困国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经担忧女孩贫乏科学信心的方针制定者们,现在更加多时间在强行男孩近年来晃动《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了一项有关“男孩风险”的斟酌。澳洲展开了一项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的品种。仅仅几代时间内,前1本性别差距消失,而后一种性别差距又冒出。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以巴黎为驻地的财经大学气粗世界智库OECD于七月5号公布了一份简报中显得了那种反转。男人在数学领域的主导地位差不离会四处。在平均年龄1六虚岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现相当。可是,在翻阅领域,女孩一贯维系超过地位,且距离变得更大。在那项研商所涉及的六10个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现杰出。女孩平均比男孩超前二个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步读书要求正视读写能力,OECD将它作为评估中最重要的技术。果真如此,在贯彻数学、阅读和自然科学的底子力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出二分一的破产恐怕。在那些群众体育的青少年,因无所依靠和无所出众,而更有恐怕从校园辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要清楚为啥男人和女人在课堂内显示出如此差距,先从课堂之外活动入手。一般1五岁女孩周周费用5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多1个钟头,他们消费越多日子玩电子游戏和上网。四分三的女人将阅读作为消遣,而仅有百分之五十多点的男子这么做。随着显示屏慢慢把眼光从本本挪开,世界上享有地点的阅读率正逐年降低,而男人降低速度更快。OECD发现,在那多少个和一般女孩子工作一般的汉子中,在读书方面包车型地铁性别差别减弱了百分之二十五左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一教授,男人就期盼快点结束。在告诉中,多于女孩子2倍的男子觉得上课是浪费时间,而且更不时迟到。就像是过去助教努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD目前提出父母和政策制定者带领男士远离将忽视学术成就作为男生气概彰显的那种想法。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着各式各类的下压力。但不幸的是,他们总括在坏行为上不辜负被人梦想。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有诸多工作可供未受教育男性选拔时,男孩鄙视高校还出示没那么非理性。然而那多少个生活已经消失。可能有的目中无人有助于男士学习数学,自信促使哥们抢先(但神迹则变为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟习”虚拟缩放“这一定义,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她们不够自律让老师很头疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

想必因为她们这么令人为难忍受,青少年男孩日常给予较低分数。OECD发现,男孩在匿名测试中的表现好于教员职员和工人评估。在读书方面包车型客车性别差别裁减了三分之一;而在数学方面,已超过的男士将差异拉大。另一商量展现,因老师缺少公平,即便能力卓绝。男士也比女生更有大概被须要复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**金沙国际,in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

以致那种差别对待?一种大概的分解是老师给予这几个礼貌、热心和远离争斗的学习者更高分数,而那一个特色在女孩中越发广大。在局地国度,甚至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种恐怕是,女性,构成了五分之四的小教的和好像70%的初级中学年老年师,更偏爱她们自个儿的性别,就好像男性上级偏爱男性下属一般。在有些地方在法网中也有性别主义:新加坡依旧允许鞭刑男性,而女性则免于该民法通则。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有点国家为男孩表现优异提供了环境。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对较小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的男人落后于女子小于别的地方。然则,令人质疑的是,这总伴随着男性在数学方面超过于女性的差别加大。反过来也建立。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现格外的冰岛、挪威和瑞士,挣扎于令人生气的日益加宽的读书方面性别差距。自二〇〇〇年OECD最终三回就此开始展览的大面积调查显示,少数国家男子在翻阅方面境遇了女子,而在另一部分国家女性成功收缩了数学方面包车型客车异样。但不曾国家成功完毕双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

高级中学级教育之后,女性的超过地位继续维持。直至新近数十年,男性大致占据高校的主流人群,尤其是毋庸置疑与工程领域的高阶课程。不过,随着高教在世界范围的蓬勃发展,女性入学拉长率差不多两倍于男性。在OECD报告展现,女性注册率由1981年的56%回涨至肆分一,到2025年可能上升至1/2。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

固然在少数女性是个外人全的OECD国家,女性数量也再逐步攀升。与此同时,一些包含美利坚独资国、英国和澳大利亚(Australia)国度,女性比男性人口多于一半。在无数美国奇才公立大学中,性别比例越来越平衡。许多少人觉着那些大学的不透明招生标准特别偏爱男性。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高等教育的女性化进度如此缓慢,以至于在十分长日子内未被人意识。据OECD的Stephan
文斯nt-Lancrin称,当二〇〇八年一份有关告知摘立刻,人们“不相信那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进去大学的女性,相对于他们的男性同僚,更有或然结束学业,且取得更好地作育。不过,男性和女性所选科目标倾向分歧。越多地女性选拔教育、健康、艺术和人管管理学科,而男性更加多选拔总括机、工程和精制科学等科目。在数学方面,女性正一如既往,而在不利、社会科学、商业和法规方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于其余蓄意的政策,社会变革更便利于鼓励女性进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的下跌,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女性寻找工作提供了方便。随着愈多女性进入工作环境,歧视变得没那么明显。一旦女性被期望全数职业发展时,女孩就意识到读书的第三。上升的离婚率使得女性发现到本人供养的要害。最近,无论是学业上还是职场上,世界内地的女孩比男孩表现出更丹东想。莫名其妙,在19世界上半叶,差不离大半U.S.办事禁止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女性是或不是渐渐成为中坚性别?出版于二零一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,至少在美利坚合众国,女性不但教育上一马当先,还在生意上和社会上一马超越。许多国家的政策制定者担忧数量慢慢攀升的下层阶级的指点程度较低的男性的前景前景。女性也相应担忧那一点。在过去,女性常见与同阶层或超越本人阶层的男性结婚。纵然那种男性较少,超越贰分之一女性只能寻找下阶层男性或选择不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD呈现,虽不是任何,不过在众多国度,高教投入对女性的回报超越男性。一家采访收入数据的专营商America
PayScale发现,女性对于高校学历的投资回报率相对于男性而言,较低或(在极端情形下)相似。固然女性总体突显越来越,但她们工松花江平仅为男性的四分三。首要缘由在于相对于工程或电脑科学等,女性选用教育、人文和社科那类工资较低科目。但是,学术切磋展现相对于男性,女性更少的关切薪金,展现了谋求高回报并非女性追求高教的严重性原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的商业和正规领域,女性依然较少。女性在母校所表现优势被逆袭。在全校,杂谈及考试评价是匿名的,性别因素被幸免,而吝惜女性不受性别歧视的熏陶。不过,来自于United KingdomCrane菲尔德哲高校的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在办事场所古板情势再度应验本身。同等数量的男性和女性投入经济大学和法规高校,然则,10-15年之后,许多女性选取了越发干燥的饭碗路线或消费越多时间陪孩子。与此同时,随着在此以前习得的经验的首要日益消退而本性、雄心和阅历成为更为首要的影响因素,男性在职业层级上稳步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

不短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学只怕职场,女性所占比例相差,因而必要时间去建立通往高层职位的渠道。不过40年以来,一些国家结束学业生人数中女性别变化成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据复旦州立大学法学教师Claudia高尔德in称,女性崛起的最后环节–平等的薪俸和特等职业也许–若不开展大幅度结构调整是不会到来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE本田UR-V的新颖文献中,戈尔德in女士发觉高素质劳引力中,在办事生活的10到15年间,男性小时薪资与女性差别巨大,重要原因在于高收入工作的大幅度奖金取决于长日子工作和每天应对电话为前提。全部而言,男性相对于女性更擅长如此行事。在那种工作章程广泛的世界,如商业和法律,性别薪俸差距还是不小。并且,甚至长时间离开工作环境也恐怕导致严重惩罚,意味着老母索要交给较大代价。而当工作薪水重要借助理工科程师时长度时,就像是配药房,性别薪资差距较小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有个别工作是难以达成灵活性的,就像那个COOs、法院开庭审判律师、妇眼科医师、银行家和一部分闻明政客们。而除此以外其余干活,薪金并非在于随时待命。同时,受过出色教育且想要脱离工作的男性也会从中收益。可是,新的性别差距位于薪资范围的另一端。受苦的不要女性,而是无技能的男性。

It is a full boarding school, for girls and boys aged between 11 and 17.

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

The College also has an eight week summer course in July and August each
year。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  school curricula高校课程

International College, Sherborne School

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

TheInternational College is the only purpose-built school of its kind
inthe UK; established in 1977, its aim is to give school children
fromnon-British, non-English speaking backgrounds the very best start
totheir education in the UK. It provides:

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  to influence影响

二〇〇八年华夏国际教育展将于五月11日在首都拉开帷幕,随后巡回博洛尼亚、新加坡、巴拿马城和
华盛顿四个城市,以下为英帝国本次参加展览学院和学校International College Sherborne
School简介:

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

金沙国际 1图形来自:BBC

c) A careful introduction to the skills essential for study at boarding
schools in England

  cool酷

b) Intensive academic development

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