Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are
designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create
Human Interface Design
It’s not enough to create an app that works. Users expect iOS apps to be
intuitive, interactive, and engaging. Think about the user experience as
you design every aspect of your app, from the features you choose to the
way your app responds to a gesture.
Although users might not be aware of human interface design principles,
they can tell when apps follow the guidelines and when they don’t.
Follow the principles and conventions 4166.am，spelled out（阐明） in iOS
Human Interface Guidelines to design a superlative user interface and
user experience for your product.
THE END !
If this trend runs its course, consumers will suffer as the tech
industry becomes less vibrant. Less money will go into startups, most
good ideas will be bought up by the Titans and, one way or another, the
profits will be captured by the giants.
Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media
companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order
to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.
The last phase of the Hook is where the user is asked to do bit of work.
This phase has two goals as far as the behavior engineer is concerned.
The first is to increase the odds that the user will make another pass
through the Hook when presented with the next trigger. Second, now that
the user’s brain is swimming in dopamine from the anticipation of reward
in the previous phase, it’s time to pay some bills. The investment
generally comes in the form of asking the user to give some combination
of time, data, effort, social capital, or money.
The platforms have become so dominant because they benefit from “network
effects”. Size begets size: the more sellers Amazon, say, can attract,
the more buyers will shop there, which attracts more sellers, and so on.
By some estimates, Amazon captures over 40% of online shopping in
America. With more than 2bn monthly users, Facebook holds sway over the
media industry. Firms cannot do without Google, which in some countries
processes more than 90% of web searches. Facebook and Google control
two-thirds of America’s online ad revenues.
A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its
bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers”
in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any
external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or
worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue
themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily
routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously
think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I
wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks
in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.
endless scroll 无限下拉滚动
After the trigger comes the intended action. Here, companies leverage
two pulleys of human behavior: motivation and ability. To increase the
odds of a user taking the intended action, the behavior designer makes
the action as easy as possible, while simultaneously boosting the user’s
motivation. This phase of the Hook draws on the art and science of
usability design to ensure that the user acts the way the designer
The trigger is the actuator of a behavior — the spark plug in the Hook
model. Triggers come in two types: external and internal. Habit-forming
technologies start by alerting users with external triggers like an
email, a link on a website, or the app icon on a phone. By cycling
continuously through these hooks, users begin to form associations with
internal triggers, which become attached to existing behaviors and
emotions. Soon users are internally triggered every time they feel a
certain way. The internal trigger becomes part of their routine
behavior, and the habit is formed.
Second, trustbusters need to think afresh about how tech markets work. A
central insight, one increasingly discussed among economists and
regulators, is that personal data are the currency in which customers
actually buy services. Through that prism, the tech titans receive
valuable information—on their users’ behaviour, friends and purchasing
habits—in return for their products. Just as America drew up
sophisticated rules about intellectual property in the 19th century, so
it needs a new set of laws to govern the ownership and exchange of data,
with the aim of giving solid rights to individuals.
A reader recently wrote to me, “If it can’t be used for evil, it’s not a
superpower.” He’s right. And under this definition, habit design is
indeed a super power. If used for good, habits can enhance people’s
lives with entertaining, and even healthful, routines. If used to
exploit, habits can turn into wasteful addictions.
business model 商业形式
What to do? In the past, societies have tackled monopolies either by
breaking them up, as with Standard Oil in 1911, or by regulating them as
a public utility, as with AT&T; in 1913. Today both those approaches
have big drawbacks. The traditional tools of utilities regulation, such
as price controls and profit caps, are hard to apply, since most
products are free and would come at a high price in forgone investment
and innovation. Likewise, a full-scale break-up would cripple the
platforms’ economies of scale, worsening the service they offer
consumers. And even then, in all likelihood one of the Googlettes or
Facebabies would eventually sweep all before it as the inexorable logic
of network effects reasserted itself.
The tactics that the best digital brands use to stay relevant in users’
minds and lives.
None of this will be simple, but it would tame the titans without
wrecking the gains they have brought. Users would find it easier to
switch between services. Upstart competitors would have access to some
of the data that larger firms hold and thus be better equipped to grow
to maturity without being gobbled up. And shareholders could no longer
assume monopoly profits for decades to come.
Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook
in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook
was habit-forming when he worked at the company.
bee’s knees: an excellent person and thing
Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,”
which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other
The less severe contest
Creating associations with internal triggers comes from building the
four components of a Hook — a trigger, action, variable reward, and
The lack of a simple solution deprives politicians of easy slogans, but
does not leave trustbusters impotent. Two broad changes of thinking
would go a long way towards sensibly taming the Titans. The first is to
make better use of existing competition law.Trustbusters
should scrutinise mergers to gauge whether a deal is likely to
neutralise a potential long-term threat, even if the target is small at
the time. Such scrutiny might have prevented Facebook’s acquisition of
Instagram and Google’s of Waze, which makes navigation software. To
ensure that the platforms do not favour their own products, oversight
groups could be set up to deliberate on complaints from rivals—a bit
like the independent “technical committee” created by the antitrust case
against Microsoft in 2001. Immunity to content liability must go, too.
America’s trustbusters have given tech giants the benefit of the doubt.
They look for consumer harm, which is hard to establish when prices are
falling and services are “free”. The firms themselves stress that a
giant-killing startup is just a click away and that they could be
toppled by a new technology, such as the blockchain. Before Google and
Facebook, Alta Vista and MySpace were the bee’s knees. Who remembers
beget: to cause something to happen or exist
人文技术大旨（Centre for Humane
The degree to which a company can utilize habit-forming technologies
will increasingly decide which products and services succeed or fail.
plaudits: strong approval