[B] identify a problem。

  2. 从性质上区分

This is a tuberculosis ward, and at the time this picture was taken in
the late 1800s, one in seven of all people died from tuberculosis. We
had no idea what was causing this disease. The hypothesis was actually
it was your constitution that made you susceptible. And it was a highly
romanticized disease. It was also called consumption, and it was the
disorder of poets and artists and intellectuals. And some people
actually thought it gave you heightened sensitivity and conferred
creative genius.

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.



And then we were really skeptical, because it was too good to be true.
So we ran it again. And then we ran it again in a PTSD model, and we ran
it again in a physiological model, where all we did was give stress
hormones. And we had our undergrads run it. And then we had our
collaborators halfway across the world in France run it. And every time
someone ran it, they confirmed the same thing. It seemed like this one
injection of Calypsol was somehow protecting against stress for weeks.

  中度敬爱教育的观念a strong tradition of valuing education

ranked in order of their support of the thesis.[D] A thesis is stated,
three seemingly opposing examples are presented, and their underlying


It is possible that 20, 50, 100 years from now, we will look back now at
depression and PTSD the way we look back at tuberculosis sanitoriums as
a thing of the past. This could be the beginning of the end of the
mental health epidemic.

  协助普及该意见:Help popularize the idea

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the
long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax
and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check
in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough
exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month.
An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。


And to be fair, it’s not entirely their fault. Functional fixedness is a
bias that affects all of us. It’s a tendency to only be able to think of
an object in terms of its traditional use or function. And mental set is
another thing. Right? That’s sort of this preconceived framework with
which we approach problems. And that actually makes repurposing pretty
hard for all of us, which is, I guess, why they gave a TV show to the
guy who was, like, really great at repurposing.


paragraph of the text?[A] A vegetable market in which the various
items are grouped according to place of origin. [B] A wheat field in
which different varieties of wheat are planted to yield a crop that will

  That question whether we need it has not been considered.

And to give you a sense of the scale of these diseases, in 2010, the
global burden of disease was estimated at 2.5 trillion dollars, and
since they are chronic, that cost is compounding and is therefore
expected to rise up to six trillion dollars in just the next 15 years.

  由细菌滋生的:Have a bacterial cause

Section Ⅳ Writing

  句子可拆分为:The issue of //whether life ever existed on the
planet, and whether it persists to this day, //has been highlighted //by
mounting evidence //that the Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid
water and //by the continuing controversy over suggestions //that
bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite from 马尔斯。

So we’ve focused on serotonin now for the past 30 years, often to the
exclusion of other things. We still have no cures, and what if serotonin
isn’t all there is to depression? What if it’s not even the key part of
it? That means no matter how much time or money or effort we put into
it, it will never lead to a cure.


[D] Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific group of
migrants to colonial North America。

  同位语从句前边的名词只可以是idea, fact, news, hope, belief,
suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise,

But it is actually kind of similar to what you see in immune vaccines.
So in immune vaccines, you’ll get your shots, and then weeks, months,
years later, when you’re actually exposed to bacteria, it’s not the
vaccine in your body that protects you. It’s your own immune system
that’s developed resistance and resilience to this bacteria that fights
it off, and you actually never get the infection, which is very
different from, say, our treatments. Right? In that case, you get the
infection, you’re exposed to the bacteria, you’re sick, and then you
take, say, an antibiotic which cures it, and those drugs are actually
working to kill the bacteria. Or similar to as I said before, with this
palliative, you’ll take something that will suppress the symptoms, but
it won’t treat the underlying infection, and you’ll only feel better
during the time in which you’re taking it, which is why you have to keep
taking it. And in depression and PTSD — here we have your stress
exposure — we only have palliative care. Antidepressants only suppress
symptoms, and that is why you basically have to keep taking them for the
life of the disease, which is often the length of your own life.

  被当作基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they
face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn
more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop
a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of
thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the
problem, not just of implementing the solution。

  The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at
home is often

As I mentioned before, repurposing can be challenging because of our
prior biases. Calypsol has another name, ketamine, which also goes by
another name, Special K, which is a club drug and drug of abuse. It’s
still used across the world as an anesthetic. It’s used in children. We
use it on the battlefield. It’s actually the drug of choice in a lot of
developing nations, because it doesn’t affect breathing. It is on the
World Health Organization list of most essential medicines.

  引起了很大的顶牛:Arouse much controversy

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument


And one of the experiments I was running, we would stress the mice, and
we used that as a model of depression. And at first it kind of just
looked like it didn’t really work at all. So we could have stopped
there. But I have run this model of depression for years, and the data
just looked kind of weird. It didn’t really look right to me. So I went
back, and we reanalyzed it based on whether or not they had gotten that
one injection of Calypsol a week beforehand. And it looked kind of like
this. So if you look at the far left, if you put a mouse in a new space,
this is the box, it’s very exciting, a mouse will walk around and
explore, and you can see that pink line is actually the measure of them
walking. And we also give it another mouse in a pencil cup that it can
decide to interact with. This is also a dramatization, in case that’s
not clear. And a normal mouse will explore. It will be social. Check out
what’s going on. If you stress a mouse in this depression model, which
is the middle box, they aren’t social, they don’t explore. They mostly
just kind of hide in that back corner, behind a cup. Yet the mice that
had gotten that one injection of Calypsol, here on your right, they were
exploring, they were social. They looked like they had never been
stressed at all, which is impossible.

  一想到……就害怕的肌体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

Do not write the address。


So we developed drugs to more specifically focus on serotonin, the
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, so the SSRIs, the most famous
of which is Prozac. And that was 30 years ago, and since then we have
mostly just worked on optimizing those drugs. And the SSRIs, they are
better than the drugs that came before them, but they still have a lot
of side effects, including weight gain, insomnia, suicidality — and
they take a really long time to work, something like four to six weeks
in a lot of patients. And that’s in the patients where they do work.
There are a lot of patients where these drugs don’t work.

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North
    America is supported by information in the text?


So the effects in both the case of iproniazid and imipramine, they were
so strong — there was mania, or people dancing in the halls. It’s
actually not that surprising they were caught. But it does make you
wonder what else we’ve missed. So iproniazid and imipramine, they’re
more than just a case study in repurposing. They have two other things
in common that are really important. One, they have terrible side
effects. That includes liver toxicity, weight gain of over 50 pounds,
suicidality. And two, they both increase levels of serotonin, which is a
chemical signal in the brain, or a neurotransmitter. And those two
things together, right, one or the two, may not have been that
important, but the two together meant that we had to develop safer
drugs, and that serotonin seemed like a pretty good place to start.

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of

Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane played the tenor
saxophone: he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and
depended on heavy, regularly accented beats. The first led Coltrane to
“sheets of sound” where he raced faster and faster, pile-driving notes
into each other to suggest stacked harmonies. The second meant that his
sense of rhythm was almost as close to rock as to bebop。

  The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few
people to help the other groups.

In the past few years, doctors have discovered probably what is the
first truly new antidepressant since the SSRIs, Calypsol, and this drug
works very quickly, within a few hours or a day, and it doesn’t work on
serotonin. It works on glutamate, which is another neurotransmitter. And
it’s also repurposed. It was traditionally used as anesthesia in
surgery. But unlike those other drugs, which were recognized pretty
quickly, it took us 20 years to realize that Calypsol was an
antidepressant, despite the fact that it’s actually a better
antidepressant, probably, than those other drugs. It’s actually probably
because of the fact that it’s a better antidepressant that it was harder
for us to recognize. There was no mania to signal its effects.

  不依附于任何机关:Work indipendently of any institution

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  1. 从词类上有别

And we only published this a year ago, but since then other labs have
independently confirmed this effect. So we don’t know what causes
depression, but we do know that stress is the initial trigger in 80
percent of cases, and depression and PTSD are different diseases, but
this is something they share in common. Right? It is traumatic stress
like active combat or natural disasters or community violence or sexual
assault that causes post-traumatic stress disorder, and not everyone
that is exposed to stress develops a mood disorder. And this ability to
experience stress and be resilient and bounce back and not develop
depression or PTSD is known as stress resilience, and it varies between
people. And we have always thought of it as just sort of this passive
property. It’s the absence of susceptibility factors and risk factors
for these disorders. But what if it were active? Maybe we could enhance
it, sort of akin to putting on armor.

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture
of New England。

  The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups
was received yesterday.

Thank you, guys.

  使她们接受独特的进化力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary

Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige
television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both
production and distribution。

  The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether it
persists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the
Red Planet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing
controversy over suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a
meteorite from Mars。

So we could have just stopped there, but Christine had also used
Calypsol before as anesthesia, and a few years ago she had seen that it
seemed to have some weird effects on cells and some other behavior that
also seemed to last long after the drug, maybe a few weeks. So we were
like, OK, maybe this is not completely impossible, but we were really


Part A

  Our team has won the game, which made us very happy.

So in 2013, up at Columbia University, I was working with my colleague,
Dr. Christine Ann Denny, and we were studying Calypsol as an
antidepressant in mice. And Calypsol has, like, a really short
half-life, which means it’s out of your body within a few hours. And we
were just piloting. So we would give an injection to mice, and then we’d
wait a week, and then we’d run another experiment to save money.

  密切相关 be intimately linked

[D] Maintaining realistic expectations

图片 1

As you can see here, a lot of these patients in 1954 are experiencing
severe euphoria. And they were worried that this might somehow interfere
with their recovering from tuberculosis. So they recommended that
iproniazid only be used in cases of extreme TB and in patients that were
highly emotionally stable, which is of course the exact opposite of how
we use it as an antidepressant. They were so used to looking at it from
the perspective of this one disease, they could not see the larger
implications for another disease.


[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on
Great Britain。

  有个别引导词如how, whether,

As a neuroscientist, I’m going to talk to you a little bit about my
firsthand experience with whatever you want to call the opposite of dumb
luck — let’s call it smart luck. But first, a bit more background.

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.



The second antidepressant we discovered, also by accident, in the 1950s,
from an antihistamine that was making people manic, imipramine. And in
both the case of the tuberculosis ward and the antihistamine, someone
had to be able to recognize that a drug that was designed to do one
thing — treat tuberculosis or suppress allergies — could be used to do
something very different — treat depression. And this sort of
repurposing is actually quite challenging. When doctors first saw this
mood-enhancing effect of iproniazid, they didn’t really recognize what
they saw. They were so used to thinking about it from the framework of
being a tuberculosis drug that they actually just listed it as a side
effect, an adverse side effect.


[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

  3. 从辅导词及其在句子中的元素上分别

And that means now, in 2016, we still have no cures for any mood
disorders, just drugs that suppress symptoms, which is kind of the
difference between taking a painkiller for an infection versus an
antibiotic. A painkiller will make you feel better, but is not going to
do anything to treat that underlying disease. And it was this
flexibility in our thinking that let us recognize that iproniazid and
imipramine could be repurposed in this way, which led us to the
serotonin hypothesis, which we then, ironically, fixated on. This is
brain signaling, serotonin, from an SSRI commercial. In case you’re not
clear, this is a dramatization. And in science, we try and remove our
bias, right, by running double-blinded experiments or being
statistically agnostic as to what our results will be. But bias creeps
in more insidiously in what we choose to study and how we choose to
study it.

  与众不一样,高人一等的人:Rare bird

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as
indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

  • 2014年考研国家线已发布
  • 34校2014考研复试线已公布
  • 2016全国各地大学调剂音讯平台
  • 二〇一六大学考研调剂音信表露办法
  • 二零一六年考研考生发布调剂意向区

If we had discovered ketamine as a paravaccine first, it’d be pretty
easy for us to develop it, but as is, we have to compete with our
functional fixedness and mental set that kind of interfere. Fortunately,
it’s not the only compound we have discovered that has these
prophylactic, paravaccine qualities, but all of the other drugs we’ve
discovered, or compounds if you will, they’re totally new, they have to
go through the entire FDA approval process — if they make it before
they can ever be used in humans. And that will be years. So if we wanted
something sooner, ketamine is already FDA-approved. It’s generic, it’s
available. We could develop it for a fraction of the price and a
fraction of the time.

  顶牛的意况 paradoxical state of affairs

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of
indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails
to link their experience with the political development of the United
States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a
connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the
period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It
is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up
good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal
independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a
peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were
suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。


Thankfully, since the 1950s, we’ve developed some other drugs and we can
actually now cure tuberculosis. And at least in the United States,
though not necessarily in other countries, we have closed our
sanitoriums and probably most of you are not too worried about TB. But a
lot of what was true in the early 1900s about infectious disease, we can
say now about psychiatric disorders.



  The news that our team has won the game was true.

We had accidentally discovered the first resilience-enhancing drug. And
like I said, we only gave a tiny amount of the drug, and it lasted for
weeks, and that’s not like anything you see with antidepressants.

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.


  The news that he told me yesterday was true.



correspondence is explained。

  主句为:The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and
whether it persists to this day, has been highlighted by… and
by…。主句主语的协会为: The issue of whether…and whether…。of
短语修饰the issue, of 短语较长一般译在末端;that the Red
Planet…是evidence的同位语从句,(即是evidence的具体内容)。that bacterial

By the 1950s, we instead knew that tuberculosis was caused by a highly
contagious bacterial infection, which is slightly less romantic, but
that had the upside of us being able to maybe develop drugs to treat it.
So doctors had discovered a new drug, iproniazid, that they were
optimistic might cure tuberculosis, and they gave it to patients, and
patients were elated. They were more social, more energetic. One medical
report actually says they were “dancing in the halls.” And
unfortunately, this was not necessarily because they were getting
better. A lot of them were still dying. Another medical report describes
them as being “inappropriately happy.” And that is how the first
antidepressant was discovered.


15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

So accidental discovery is not uncommon in science, but it requires more
than just a happy accident. You have to be able to recognize it for
discovery to occur.

  在此以前被认为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first
    paragraph of the text?

So we’re calling our resilience-enhancing drugs “paravaccines,” which
means vaccine-like, because it seems like they might have the potential
to protect against stress and prevent mice from developing depression
and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also, not all antidepressants are
also paravaccines. We tried Prozac as well, and that had no effect.


Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know
should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be
the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go,
but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more
than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look
at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as
other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。

But actually, beyond functional fixedness and mental set, there’s a real
other challenge to repurposing drugs, which is policy. There are no
incentives in place once a drug is generic and off patent and no longer
exclusive to encourage pharma companies to develop them, because they
don’t make money. And that’s not true for just ketamine. That is true
for all drugs. Regardless, the idea itself is completely novel in
psychiatry, to use drugs to prevent mental illness as opposed to just
treat it.



We are in the middle of an epidemic of mood disorders like depression
and post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. One in four of all adults
in the United States suffers from mental illness, which means that if
you haven’t experienced it personally or someone in your family hasn’t,
it’s still very likely that someone you know has, though they may not
talk about it. Depression has actually now surpassed HIV/AIDS, malaria,
diabetes and war as the leading cause of disability worldwide. And also,
like tuberculosis in the 1950s, we don’t know what causes it. Once it’s
developed, it’s chronic, lasts a lifetime, and there are no known cures.

  结构提醒:that some diseases 是眼下 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

But as a great scientist once said, “Only a fool is sure of anything. A
wise man keeps on guessing.”


Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty
funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a
diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends
largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty
funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look
for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of

So we did what you do in science when you’re not sure, and we ran it
again. And I remember being in the animal room, moving mice from box to
box to test them, and Christine was actually sitting on the floor with
the computer in her lap so the mice couldn’t see her, and she was
analyzing the data in real time. And I remember us yelling, which you’re
not supposed to do in an animal room where you’re testing, because it
had worked. It seemed like these mice were protected against stress, or
they were inappropriately happy, however you want to call it. And we
were really excited.

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the
    following ways EXCEPT to

So if this were to translate into humans, we might be able to protect
people who are predictably at risk against stress-induced disorders like
depression and PTSD. So that’s first responders and firefighters,
refugees, prisoners and prison guards, soldiers, you name it.

[A] It is totally implausible。

[C] take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists
who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land。

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic
range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the
variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the
starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference
(between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that
left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for,
which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in
having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still
searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers
was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following
Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a
kind of rock art form。

house increases as houses are built up the hill.40. Which of the
following phrases from the text best expresses the author’s conclusion
about the


电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注