middle school

  大家事先说过,复习考研[微博]爱尔兰语要讲究真题,在记念词汇和磨炼阅读领悟、翻译题的时候要组成真题做搭配纪念,并辅以相应的勤学苦练,上面大家就以真题为例,从中挑选出不难出现的考点,让二零一六的考生更深入地驾驭“搭配纪念”法。

1 Good parenting

One of the most difficult transitions faced by parents and youth is that
of going from elementary to middle school. Parents are often dismayed
that their child who once confided every detail now spends more time
alone or with friends. This may be the first time parents are called by
a teacher and told their child is less focused on school than in the
past. While this can be disheartening, it may help to know that much of
this is a normal developmental process.

Five men accused of gang-raping an 18-year-old woman in Spain have been
convicted of sexual abuse but acquitted of the more serious crime of
rape, in a case that sparked a national outcry.

  【相关真题】

Good schooling
The parent-child relationship

Erikson called this stage, “Identity Versus Role Confusion” to imply
youths’ attempts to fit into society during this stage. As an almost
teenager, youth at this stage begin separating from parents and start
focusing more on peer bonding. Most parents remember going through this
stage and may fear their child will make mistakes.

All five have been sentenced to nine years in jail. They filmed their
attack during Pamplona’s San Fermín bull-running festival in July 2016.

  ①Families have alsoexperienced changes these years. ②Morefamilies
consist of one-parent households or two working parents;
consequently,children are likely to have less supervision at home than
was common in thetraditional family structure. ③Thislack of parental
supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crimerates. ④Other
identifiable causes ofoffensive acts include frustration or failure in
school, the increasedavailability of drugs and alcohol, and the growing
incidence of child abuse andchild neglect. ⑤Allthese conditions tend to
increase the probability of a child committing acriminal act, although a
direct causal relationship has not yet beenestablished。

2 Build strong family relationships

Know that despite your best efforts, your child is going to make some
mistakes and some of these mistakes, while difficult, will help your
child learn and grow. The important thing to focus upon at this stage is
guiding your child so they do not make major life changing mistakes that
impact their future. For example, parents will want to monitor online
communications, discuss the consequences of sexual behaviors and drug
use, and ensure children are safe. Mistakes such as these can be severe
and include sexual abuse, disease, pregnancy, legal issues, and other
serious issues. At the same time, parents cannot and should not go
everywhere with their children, complete school work for them, or solve
all problems on the child’s behalf. Doing so, ensures the child will not
learn to solve problems needed to succeed in life.

The group and their victim can appeal.

  【高频考点】

Build a sense of belonging
Have meals as a family
Share family chores
Share ideas and feelings

So what is a parent to do? First, monitor your child without interfering
in learning. This means knowing who your child is with or talking to
online, where your child is at all times, and ensuring appropriate adult
supervision when away from home. It also means allowing the child to
suffer minor consequences. Adlerian therapists refer to “natural and
logical consequences.” For example, a child who does not eat dinner may
be hungry or a child who loses a book may have to pay to replace it.
These are healthy consequences and help children learn from their own
choices and mistakes without life altering consequences.

Dozens of protesters outside the court criticised the verdict, shouting:
“It’s rape, not abuse.”

  1.发生变化:experiencechanges

Strengthen family bonds
Family bonding activities

Another thing to remember, if called by the school, is that your child
may be testing boundaries and focusing more on friends than homework.
This may be frustrating to hear, but take heart knowing this often
occurs as part of normal development. This does not mean, however, that
children should not be held accountable. At this point, parents may have
to become more involved in monitoring their child’s school work,
friendships, and implement immediate and consistent consequences.

Several demonstrations have been called against the verdict and in
support of the victim.

  2.由单亲家庭构成:consistof one-parent households

Achieve a good work-family balance
Help their children with homework

While this stage in your child’s life can be trying, know it doesn’t
last forever. Also, much of what ensues is quite positive. Watching your
child grow as they test boundaries can be humorous at times and if you
do your job as a parent well, you will be proud of the person your child
grows up to be.

The five, in their late 20s and originally from Seville, and the victim,
from Madrid, were not present when the judgement was read out after a
five-month trial, which was held behind closed doors to protect the
woman’s identity.

  3.XKF会对年轻人犯罪率暴发震慑:XKFis thought to be an influence on
juvenile crime rates。

Monitor their children’s academic performance
Are more involved in their children’s education

Under Spanish law, the charge of sexual abuse differs from rape in that
it does not involve violence or intimidation.

  4.充实或许性:increasethe probability

These parents believe that they are more involved in their children’s
education than their own parents were.

The men, who have been in custody since 2016, have also been ordered to
pay the woman €50,000 ($61,000; £43,500) in compensation.

  5.直接的因果关系还尚未创设起来:adirect causal relationship has not
yet been established

Teach their children good manners
Provide good role models for their children

What is the case?

  6.可明确的缘由:identifiablecauses

3 Working parents

Videos of the late-night encounter between the men and the young woman
showed how the five men had wandered the streets among other drunken
revellers before two of them led her into the basement block of flats by
the hand.

  7.犯案的行事:offensiveacts

It helps busy working parents balance their lives.

According to a police report, the men – who belonged to a WhatsApp group
called “La manada” (wolf pack) – surrounded the woman in a small alcove,
removed her clothes and had unprotected sex.

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